FAQs – artificial enamel (hydroxyapatite)

Here you will find frequently asked questions about the active ingredient hydroxyapatite – better known as artificial enamel – in the Bioniq® Repair products.

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Apatite and hydroxyapatite are both minerals and belong to the calcium phosphate family. There are a number of different calcium phosphates. Hydroxyapatite is the most stable and the most important calcium phosphate for humans, as it forms the mineral phase of bones and teeth. The chemical formula of hydroxyapatite is: Ca5(PO4)3(OH).

Hydroxyapatite plays an essential role in the human body. It forms the basis for teeth and bones. In both cases, hydroxyapatite is responsible for their hardness. Unlike many other active ingredients used in dental care, hydroxyapatite occurs naturally in the human body.

The term “bionics” combines “biology” and “technique”. You are no doubt aware of examples of bionics or biomimetics in everyday life. Some examples include the lotus effect or hook-and-pile fasteners. We also rely on the principle of bionics and biomimetics in our research into oral care using the active ingredient hydroxyapatite, which makes up 97% of our tooth enamel.

Bioniq® Repair products are described as having a biomimetic or bionic mode of action since they are based on a principle taken from nature, using an ingredient modelled on real dental enamel: hydroxyapatite. These biomimetic crystallites are known as artificial enamel since they can repair microscopically small defects in the enamel surface when you brush your teeth.

The artificial enamel seals the so-called dentinal tubules in the exposed necks of teeth which would otherwise react painfully to sources of heat and cold. A clinical study using Bioniq® Repair-Toothpaste was able to demonstrate that during a four-week period of use, the symptoms of dental hypersensitivity improved significantly¹.

1 G. Orsini, M. Procaccini, L. Manzoli, F. Giuliodori, A. Lorenzini, A. Putignano, J.  Clin. Periodontol.   2010, 37, 510-517 ("A double-blind randomized controlled trail comparing the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice containing carbonate/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice").

Bad breath is frequently caused by certain bacteria which colonise the surface of the teeth similar to a film. Bioniq® Repair products repair microscopically small defects in the surface of the teeth and thus have a smoothing effect. This makes it harder for bacteria to adhere to the smooth surface, and makes them easier to remove. As soon as there are fewer bacteria on the surface of the teeth, bad breath can also improve. If bad breath is a major problem, it is best to discuss this with a dentist in order to rule out any serious illnesses.